What is Response to Intervention (RTI)?

When Congress reauthorized IDEA (Individuals W/Disabilities Education Act), they changed the law about identifying students with specific learning disabilities. Schools will “not be required to take into consideration whether a child has a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability…” (Section 141 (b)) Wrightslaw: IDEA , 2004, page 88). The Federal Department of Education urges states and school districts to abandon discrepancy models and adopt a Response to Intervention (RTI) model. An RTI model focuses on applying a problem solving framework to identify and address the student’s difficulties using effective, efficient and research-based instruction that leads to improved achievement.

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The core characteristics of RTI include:

  • Students receive high quality instruction in their general education setting
  • General education instruction is research-based
  • General education instructors and staff assume an active role in students’ assessment in that curriculum
  • School staff conduct universal screening of academics and behavior
  • Continuous progress monitoring of student performance occurs
  • Continuous progress monitoring pinpoints students’ specific difficulties
  • School staff implement specific, research-based interventions to address the student’s difficulties
  • School staff use progress-monitoring data to determine interventions’ effectiveness and to make any modifications as needed
  • Systematic assessment of the fidelity or integrity with which instruction and interventions are implemented

In CDSD, the following attributes are also a component to the RTI model:

  • The concept of multiple tiers of increasingly intense student interventions
  • Implementation of a differentiated curriculum
  • Instruction delivered by staff other than the classroom teacher
  • Varied duration, frequency, and time of interventions

Central Dauphin's Tier Intervention System

Area of Intervention

Tier One

Tier Two

Additional Options for Tier Two

Tier Three

Tier Four

Reading Phonemic Awareness & Alphabetic Principle

· Regular Education Curriculum

· Phonology K-2

· Language Circle Phonology or Linguistics small in-class group

· Reading Support Services

· PALS

· Homework Club

· Before/After School Programs

· Tutoring

· Follow the Leader

· Intensive Phonology with Glass Analysis

· Intensive Linguistics (4th & 5th)

· Corrective Reading

· REWARDS

· Special Education Intensive Instruction

· Wilson Reading

Reading
Comprehension

· Regular Education Curriculum

· Houghton-Mifflin “lower” reading group

· Interactive Read Alouds

· Language Circle Sm. Group Story +/or Report Form

· Reading Support Services/Soar to Success

· PALS

· Homework Club

· Before/After School Programs

· Tutoring

· Follow the Leader

· Visualizing &
Verbalizing

· Language Circle: Story/Report Form

· Corrective Reading Comprehension

· Special Education Intensive Instruction

Reading Vocabulary

· Regular education Curriculum

· Houghton-Mifflin “lower” reading group

· Word Walls

· Interactive Read Alouds

· Reading Support Services

· Homework Club

· Before/After School Programs

· Tutoring

· Follow the Leader

· Language for Learning

· Language for Thinking

· REWARDS

· Special Education Intensive Instruction

Reading Fluency

· Regular Education Curriculum

· Houghton-Mifflin “lower” reading group

· Reading Support Services

· PALS

· Read Naturally

· Homework Club

· Before/After School Programs

· Tutoring

· Fluency Coaching

(1-2 students)

· Special Education Intensive Instruction

Written Language

· Regular Education Curriculum

· Four Square

· Web/Visual Organizers

· HWT

· Framing Your Thoughts

· HWT: Small Group

· Homework Club

· Before/After School Programs

· Tutoring

· Language Circle Writing Strand

· OT Screen

· Special Education Intensive Instruction

Created by Gretchen Barns 8/21/06

 
Intervention Strategies Descriptions 

All intervention programs described are research based to be effective in remediating students’ skills in a given area.

Corrective Reading

Corrective Reading is a reading program that contains two strands. One of the strands focuses on decoding skills and the other, comprehension skills. Corrective Reading is for students who cannot read accurately and fluently, have attention deficits, whose overall academic performance is hurt by poor comprehension, and/or whose reading is putting them at risk of failure.

Fluency Coaching

Fluency coaching is a program in which a trained adult works with one or two children to assist in increasing their reading fluency skills by practicing oral reading skills.

Glass Analysis

Glass Analysis is a proven clustering approach that gets students to identify visually and auditorily, letters and clusters in whole words, all leading to correct sounding-out to the automatic level. Glass Analysis is often paired with the district phonology program (Language Circle/Project Read) to further develop a student’s phonetic skills.

Handwriting Without Tears… The Print Tool

Handwriting w/o Tears is the district handwriting program. When students have been identified with ongoing difficulties developing handwriting skills this program is used to evaluate and remediate those difficulties.    

Language for Learning

Language for Learning focuses upon vocabulary development. Language for Learning teaches children the words, concepts, and statements important to both oral and written language. The program emphasizes language as a means of describing the world and as a tool for thinking and solving problems. Language for Learning offers children instruction through carefully sequenced exercises that teach the concepts and skills they need to succeed in school. This program is for children who don’t have a solid language foundation or who have weak vocabulary development. It is also recommended for ESL students. This component is primarily for students in grades kindergarten through second grade.

Language for Thinking

This program extends what is taught in the Language for Learning Program and, again, focuses upon vocabulary development. This program is intended for students in second through fourth grade.

PALS (Peer Assisted Learning Strategies)

PALS is a classroom-wide structured peer tutoring program in which students are paired to work on reinforcing and developing either reading or math skills. Students are taught specific tutoring skills and then work independently with a peer of similar capabilities. This program is intended for students in kindergarten through high school.

Read Naturally

Read Naturally is primarily used for students who need to improve their reading fluency. Read Naturally’s programs offer struggling readers a safe, structured, and highly motivating opportunity to engage in reading on a regular basis. The key to its success lies in its basis in three powerful, research-based strategies for improving fluency: teacher modeling, repeated reading, and progress monitoring.

REWARDS (Reading Excellence: Word Attack and Rate Development Strategies)

Rewards is a reading program that focuses upon teaching students a flexible strategy to decode multi-syllabic words. It is meant for students in fourth grade through twelfth grade who can easily read one or two syllable words. The program consists of 20 sequential lessons. At the secondary level, there are also programs that focus primarily on science and/or social studies words.

Visualizing and Verbalizing

Visualizing and Verbalizing recognizes that visualization is a primary factor basic to language comprehension and critical thinking. This program teaches children to construct visual images of what is being said or read to them. It also teaches children to communicate in a way that allows others to construct pictures from what they are describing. This program is for children who have difficulty following directions, get lost easily, can’t get the main idea, and communicate poorly.
 
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