What is Response to Intervention & Instruction(RtII) and Multi-Tiered System of Supports (MTSS
When Congress reauthorized IDEA (Individuals W/Disabilities Education Act), they changed the law about identifying students with specific learning disabilities. Schools will “not be required to take into consideration whether a child has a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability…” (Section 141 (b)) Wrightslaw: IDEA , 2004, page 88). The Federal Department of Education urges states and school districts to abandon discrepancy models and adopt a Response to Intervention (RTI) model. An RTI model focuses on applying a problem solving framework to identify and address the student’s difficulties using effective, efficient and research-based instruction that leads to improved achievement.GUIDING PRINCIPLES1. Standards Aligned Instruction- All students receive high quality core instruction in the general education standards aligned system.2. Universal Screening-All students are screened to determine academic and behavior status against grade level benchmarks. Screening is used to determine high and low performing students whose needs are not being met.
3. Data Based Decision Making
- Benchmark: Provides feedback about how each student is progressing toward proficiency on grade level standards. (Acadience, BAS, Go Math! Benchmark Assessments)
- Diagnostic: Ascertains each student’s strengths, skills, and deficits prior to instruction. (BAS, DRA, QRI, CORE Assessments, 95% Group Phonics Screener, running records, HMH RI, HMH MI, M-COMP)
- Formative: Allows teachers to monitor and adjust instructional practices to meet the individual needs of students. (Progress monitoring, quizzes, informal assessments, written responses, reflective writing, etc.)
- Summative: Allows teachers to assess their overall instruction and evaluate the effectiveness of programs and services. (PSSA, performance tasks, unit assessments, etc.)
4. Shared Ownership
- Progress Monitoring: Student performance, including ROI, is continuously monitored. Data is used to determine the effectiveness of interventions, to drive instruction, and to measure progress toward instructional goals.
- Rate of Improvement (ROI): Rates of improvement for all students are calculated with benchmark data. ROI is also calculated with progressing data for strategic and intensive students. It is used to determine the effectiveness of core instruction, interventions, and progress toward individual goals.
- Benchmark and Outcome Assessment: Student progress is assessed periodically throughout the school year and at the end of the year.
5. Tiered Intervention and Service Delivery:
- ALL students are part of one educational system, and ALL students can learn.
- ALL staff (general education, special education, education specialists) assume an active role in students’ assessment and instruction in the general education curriculum.
- Strong administrative support is critical to the success of MTSS (RtII & PBIS) ensuring staff commitment and availability of resources.
6. Parent Engagement:
- Based on data driven decisions, students receive appropriate levels of scientifically, research-based interventions.
- Students receive instruction in flexible groups.
- Instruction is delivered with fidelity.
- Parents are an integral part of the MTSS (RtII & PBIS) process and should be invited to all formal meetings.
- Parents receive information regarding their child’s needs, including a description of the intervention, the method of delivery, description of the intervention goals, and regular progress reports.
- Parents have the right to request a special education evaluation at any time.
Intervention Strategies Descriptions
All intervention programs described are research based to be effective in remediating students’ skills in a given area.
95% GroupA Company that provides professional development for direct phonemic awareness and phonics instruction. Programs include the Blending Routine, Phonics Lessons, Mutlisyllable Routine, etc.
Comprehension ToolkitA program that teaches comprehension strategies throughout interactive read-aloud with authentic literature. The lessons may be taught as scripted or with any text chosen by the teacher.Corrective Reading
Corrective Reading is a reading program that contains two strands. One of the strands focuses on decoding skills and the other, comprehension skills. Corrective Reading is for students who cannot read accurately and fluently, have attention deficits, whose overall academic performance is hurt by poor comprehension, and/or whose reading is putting them at risk of failure.
Early Intervention in Reading PrimaryA program designed to provide extra instruction to small groups of students at risk of failing to learn to read. The program uses authentic literature to stress instruction phonemic awareness, phonics, and contextual analysis, along with repeated reading and writing.Early Intervention in Reading (EIR) IntermediateA prog ream designed to provide extra instruction to small groups of students at risk of failing to learn to read. The program uses authentic literature to stress instruction in advanced phonics, and contextual analysis, along with repeated reading and writing.Early Reading Intervention (Kindergarten Sidewalks)An intervention program that provides systematic instruction in learning letter names and sounds, segmenting, blending, and integrating word reading and sentence reading.Early SuccessAn intervention program designed for 1st and 2nd gradeers who need extra support to become proficient grad level readers. The lesson provide supplemental support to core instruction with a three part lesson plan: Rereading for fluency, Reading Books of the Week and Working with Words/Writing Sentences. Early success is based on the EIR program developed by Barbara Taylor of the University of Minnesota.FCRRIndependent student center activities to help students practice reading skills in phonemic awareness, alphabetic principle, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Materials can be downloaded from www.fcrr.orgGlass Analysis
Glass Analysis is a proven clustering approach that gets students to identify visually and auditorily, letters and clusters in whole words, all leading to correct sounding-out to the automatic level. Glass Analysis is often paired with the district phonology program (Language Circle/Project Read) to further develop a student’s phonetic skills.
Journeys Literacy Tool KitAn intervention for tier 3 intermediate grade students in while students receive lessons in key reading skills: phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Students apply the skills they are learning as they read included leveled texts.Journeys Reading Tool KitAn intervention for tier 3 primary grade students in which students receive lessons in key reading skills: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Students apply skills they are learning as they read included leveled text.
Journeys Tier 2 Intervention/ Write-in ReaderAn intervention lesson intended for tier 2 students. These lessons correspond with lessons taught in the core Journeys reading program. Lessons may be used to pre-teach or re-teach weekly core skills: phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension.Language Circle – Framing Your ThoughtsAn instructional program that focuses on sentence and paragraph development using multisensory activities and sequential instruction to develop the basic skills of writing.Language Circle – LinguisticsA multisensory instructional program, designed for 4th graders to adults, that builds on the foundation of systematic phonics, using morphology, phonology, vocabulary, and spelling to explore the written word.Language Circle – PhonologyA multisensory instructional program designed for classroom or small group instruction. The program emphasizes direct instruction with lessons that move from letter-sounds to words, sentences, and stories.Language Circle – Report FormA multisensory instructional program designed to instruct 2nd graders to adults to analyze the underlying structure of expository texts.Expository.A multisensory instructional program designed to instruct Kindergartners to adults to analyze the underlying structure of narrative texts.Language for LearningLanguage for Learning focuses upon vocabulary development. Language for Learning teaches children the words, concepts, and statements important to both oral and written language. The program emphasizes language as a means of describing the world and as a tool for thinking and solving problems. Language for Learning offers children instruction through carefully sequenced exercises that teach the concepts and skills they need to succeed in school. This program is for children who don’t have a solid language foundation or who have weak vocabulary development. It is also recommended for ESL students. This component is primarily for students in grades kindergarten through second grade.
Language for Thinking
This program extends what is taught in the Language for Learning Program and, again, focuses upon vocabulary development. This program is intended for students in second through fourth grade.
My Sidewalks on Reading Street (Levels A – E)An intensive reading intervention program that accelerates the reading development of struggling students. It aligns instruction perfectly with Scott Foresman Reading Street, but can be used with any core classroom reading program.PALS (Peer Assisted Learning Strategies)
PALS is a classroom-wide structured peer tutoring program in which students are paired to work on reinforcing and developing either reading or math skills. Students are taught specific tutoring skills and then work independently with a peer of similar capabilities. This program is intended for students in kindergarten through high school.The Power of RetellingA supplemental resource that provides teachers with an instructional framework that helps move students beyond concrete factual retelling to retellings that reflect abstract, critical, and inferential thinking.Reaching All ReadersA supplemental program that includes leveled literature with direct instruction lessons with phonics and decoding along with comprehension.Read Naturally
Read Naturally is primarily used for students who need to improve their reading fluency. Read Naturally’s programs offer struggling readers a safe, structured, and highly motivating opportunity to engage in reading on a regular basis. The key to its success lies in its basis in three powerful, research-based strategies for improving fluency: teacher modeling, repeated reading, and progress monitoring.
Reading A – ZOn-line supplemental resources for teachers. The web-site includes leveled texts, decodable texts, vocabulary readers, and alphabet books. It also includes Spanish books that can be used with entering ELL students who are literate.REWARDSAn intervention program that focuses on teaching students flexible strategies to decode multisyllabic words. The program is designed for students to practice reading words, sentences, and passages in various subject areas successfully and independently.The Six Minute Solution - IntermediateAn intervention program that builds reading fluency with one-minute peer-to-peer reading of leveled nonfiction passages. Progress is monitored by students. There are additional comprehension lessons included with the program.The Six Minute Solution -PrimaryAn intervention program that builds reading fluency with one-minute peer-to-peer reading of leveled word lists and nonfiction passages. Progress is monitored by students. There are additional phonics and comprehension lessons included with the program.Soar to Success (3 – 6)A reading intervention program designed to accelerate reading abilities with the use of authentic fiction and nonfiction texts. This intervention uses reciprocal teaching to teach students a process of using comprehension strategies (predict, clarify, question, summarize) to improve their understandings of texts.Visualizing and Verbalizing
Visualizing and Verbalizing recognizes that visualization is a primary factor basic to language comprehension and critical thinking. This program teaches children to construct visual images of what is being said or read to them. It also teaches children to communicate in a way that allows others to construct pictures from what they are describing. This program is for children who have difficulty following directions, get lost easily, can’t get the main idea, and communicate poorly.Wilson Reading SystemA supplemental reading and writing curriculum designed to promote reading accuracy and spelling skills with students with word-level deficits. The program was designed for students in grade 2 and above who have been unable to learn with other teaching strategies, or who may require multisensory language instruction.Words Their WayA word study program that provides phonics, vocabulary, and spelling instruction for students in Kindergarten to high school. The program aims to reveal logic and consistencies within written language to students in kindergarten to high school.