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    • Phonemic Awareness: The ability to hear and manipulate the sounds in spoken words and the understanding that spoken words and syllables are made up of speech sounds (Yopp, 1992). Print is not involved. For example, asking the student: "What sound do you hear at the beginning of the word cat?" or "Tell me a word that rhymes with tree?"
    • Phonics: The basic concept that letters represent segments of speech. Students are taught letter names, the relationships between letters and sounds, an understanding that these relationships are systematic and predictable, and the use of these relationships to read and write words.
    • Fluency: The ability to read connected text rapidly, smoothly, effortlessly, and automatically with little conscious attention to decoding, thereby allowing the reader to focus attention on the meaning and message of the text. Text is read with appropriate intonation and expression that sounds very much like conversational speech.
    • Vocabulary: Vocabulary development involves word knowledge, word instruction, word learning strategies and usage.
    • Comprehension: The process of constructing meaning from written text. It includes such skills as: vocabulary knowledge, activating prior knowledge, ability to use and understand text structure, literal understanding of what is read, sequencing, summarizing, making inferences, predicting, and making connections between new and unknown information.