• What is Response to Intervention and Instruction (RtII)?

    RtII is an early intervening strategy and carries dual meaning in Pennsylvania. It is a comprehensive, multi-tiered, standards aligned strategy to enable early identification and intervention for students at academic or behavioral risk. RtII may be considered as one alternative to the aptitude-achievement discrepancy model for the identification of students with learning disabilities after the establishment of specific progress measures.


    RtII allows educators to identify and address academic and behavioral difficulties prior to student failure. Monitoring student response to a series of increasingly intense interventions assists in preventing failure and provides data that may guide eligibility decisions for learning disabilities.


    The goal of RtII is to improve student achievement using research-based interventions matched to the instructional need and level of the student.




    The core characteristics of RtII include:
    • Students receive high quality instruction in their general education setting
    • General education instruction is research-based
    • General education instructors and staff assume an active role in students’ assessment in that curriculum
    • School staff conduct universal screening of academics and behavior
    • Continuous progress monitoring of student performance occurs
    • Continuous progress monitoring pinpoints students’ specific difficulties
    • School staff implement specific, research-based interventions to address the student’s difficulties
    • School staff use progress-monitoring data to determine interventions’ effectiveness and to make any modifications as needed
    • Systematic assessment of the fidelity or integrity with which instruction and interventions are implemented


    In CDSD, the following attributes are also a component to the RtII model:

    • The concept of multiple tiers of increasingly intense student interventions
    • Implementation of a differentiated curriculum
    • Instruction delivered by staff other than the classroom teacher
    • Varied duration, frequency, and time of interventions


    Intervention Programs 
    (Use the bottom bar to view items to the right.)

    Intervention Program

    *Notes that this program is currently in place at Paxtang Elem.

    What is it?

    Recommended Tier

    Skill Focus

    What type of learner needs this instruction?

    *Academic Workout

    Academic Workout is a resource that focuses on language arts standards ~ reading, writing, grammar, literature and vocabulary.  It offers lessons on key phonics, vocabulary, and reading topics at each grade level.  It can be used along side any program.  The teacher can choose lesson based on the student’s needs.  The lessons are short and concise, fun and engaging.  The program uses authentic literature to address concepts we want our students to know.

    Can fit into daily lesson plans, the teacher can teach a standard in as little as 10 minutes

    All students at every grade level

    Ø Intensive/Strategic/Benchmark Learners

    Ø Students that need an extra dose of instruction

    Ø ESL Students

    *Comprehension Toolkit:  Language and Lessons for Active Literacy

    Responsive teaching.  Strategies to develop active literacy classrooms in which teachers watch, listen, keep track of and document students’ learning.  Emphasizes consistent language to use to develop deeper understanding and diverse thinking about text.  Centers on six strategy clusters:  Monitor comprehension, activate and connect; ask questions; infer meaning; determine importance; summarize and synthesize.

    Lessons are taught, and then reinforced continually throughout all literacy instruction.  Students are responsible for using the strategies all the time.

    K – 8th grade students

    Ø Strategic/Benchmark Learners

    Ø Students who need explicit instruction with comprehension strategies.

    Ø ESL Students

    Corrective Reading

    Corrective Reading is a Direct Instruction program that helps students master the essential decoding and comprehension skills they need to be able to read.  It is comprised of two strands, decoding and comprehension, that can be taught separately or in unison.  The program is designed for students in grades 3 and above and helps students identifying words, understand how the arrangement of letters relates to pronunciation, teaches a systematic approach to phonics, builds fluency, background knowledge and vocabulary, and improves thinking skills.

    Each lesson takes approximately 40 minutes and should be taught daily so that students can move through two levels in one school year

    3rd grade and above students who cannot read accurately and fluently, have attention deficits, whose overall academic performance is hurt by poor comprehension, and/or whose reading is putting them at risk of failure.

    Ø Intensive Learners

    Ø Synthetic phonics specifically taught in a highly structured systematic approach.

    Ø Students who lack visualization skills

    Ø Students who are unable to  organize and process concepts

    Ø Students that need to develop phonemic awareness, sound-symbol identification, letter/word discrimination, sound/letter combinations, vocabulary development and fluency.

    Ø ESL Students

    Glass Analysis

    Glass Analysis is a proven clustering approach where students identify visually and auditorily, letters and clusters in whole words, all learning to correct sounding-out to the automatic level.  Glass Analysis is often paired with the district phonology program (Language Circle/Project Read to further develop a student’s phonetic skills.

    C & I dept.

    recommends an individualized or small group 15 minute session at least 3 times a week

    Students who need decoding in a whole language setting

    Students who have not been successful with a synthetic phonics approach

    Ø Intensive/Strategic Learners

    Ø Students who learn best with phonics by Analogy (patterns)

    Ø Students who have difficulty blending and segmenting phonemes

    Ø ESL Students

    *Junior Great Books

    Junior Great Books is a reading program that combines great literature and the Shared Inquiry discussion method of teaching.  Students are empowered to take ownership of learning through reflective thinking activities.  Through the Shared Inquiry Discussion, students interact with one another, sharing interpretations of the literature as well as ideas and insights gained while reading.

    Daily 40 – 50 minutes



    3rd – 5th grade students


    Ø Benchmark/Above Benchmark Learners

    Ø Students who have necessary language skills to share thinking and interpretation about texts


    Intervention Program

    What is it?

    How often is it used?

    Who was it designed for?

    What type of learner needs this instruction?

    Ladders to Literacy

    L to L provides lessons that covers print awareness, phonological awareness and oral language.  The teacher can select lessons appropriate for student needs.

    No implementation schedule recommended

    K – 1st grade students

    Ø Strategic Learners

    Ø Students that need practice with print, phonological awareness and oral language (voc.)

    Ø ESL Students

    *Language Circle


    Framing Your Thoughts/Written Expression teaches written language sequentially and systematically with direct multi-sensory skill instruction.  Instruction moves from barebone sentences through five kinds of paragraph development.

    At least 3 times a week for 30 minutes

    1st – 12th grade students

    Ø Intensive/Strategic/Benchmark Learners

    Ø Students struggling with writing complete sentences.

    Ø ESL Students

    *Language Circle


    Linguistics is a continuation of Phonology.  It continues to build a chain of learning based on logic links.  The student can see the parts that make the whole.  Students learn that units of sounds are combined together to construct polysyllabic words. 

    3 times a week for 30 minutes per session

    4th – 12th grade students who are most at risk of reading failure due to a lack of phonetic/ syllabication  understanding in the regular/special education classrooms

    Ø Intensive/Strategic/Benchmark Learners

    Ø Students who respond to synthetic phonics instruction

    Ø Students who have difficulty decoding multi-syllabic words.

    Ø ESL Students

    *Language Circle


    Phonology is based on scientifically-based research and correlates with the essential elements of effective reading instruction as recommended by the National Reading Panel and the Reading First Initiative.  It is a multi-sensory approach where each skill is broken down to its simplest component and then sequenced in a three step process:  progression from simple to complex, frequency of use, and skills dependent on prior concepts.

    Instruction should be in a daily 30 minute, small group of no more than 10 students.

    Students most at risk of reading failure due to a lack of phonetic understanding in the regular/special education classrooms

    Ø Intensive/Strategic/Benchmark Learners

    Ø Students who respond to synthetic phonics instruction

    Ø Students who need a multi-sensory approach to learn synthetic phonics skills (encoding and decoding).

    Ø ESL Students

    *Language Circle


    Report Form is designed to teach students a process to collect, organize, and synthesize information when reading expository text.


    3rd – 12th grade students who are most at risk of reading failure due to lack of comprehension of nonfiction text structures in the regular/special education classrooms

    Ø Intensive/Strategic/Benchmark Learners

    Ø Students who have difficulty extracting meaning from non-fiction text.

    Ø ESL Students