• Phonemic Awareness
    Definition - the ability to recognize words are made of sounds and ability to manipulate sounds

    • Identify the beginning sounds of words
      • mice begins with m
      • emphasize the beginning sounds when saying words
        • /m/ /m/ mice
    • Hear rhyme
      • bat and cat
      • change the beginning sounds of words to create rhyming words (words don't have to be real)
        • rat - cat - tat- hat - mat - pat - wat - dat - bat
    • Identify words with same beginning sounds
      • baby and book
      • emphasize words with same beginning sounds
        • / b/ /b/ baby and /b/ /b/ book
      • emphasize words with different beginning sounds
        • /b/ /b/ baby and /m/ /m/ mat
    • Identify the number of sounds within a word
      • bike has 3 sounds
      • tap out each sound as it is said
        • /b/ /i/ /k/

    Programs used to support instruction - Houghton Mifflin, Phonology, Sidewalks, Heggerty, 95% Group - Blending Routine

    Alphabetic Principle
    Definition - ability to associate sounds with letters and use sounds to form words

    • Stretch out sounds
      • tap out each sound while stretching it to the next sound, then blend the sounds together to form the word
    •  Decoding - reading sounds that are represented by letters
      • tap under each letter, then blend the sounds together

    Programs used to support instruction - Houghton Mifflin, Phonology, Sidewalks

    Phonics
    Definition - relationship between letters and sounds

    • Teach the sounds to match the letters
      • show each letter and demonstrate sounds in isolations
    • Teach the decoding patterns
      • CVC - cat
      • CVCe - rate

    Programs used to support instruction - Houghton Mifflin, Phonology, Sidewalks, Glass Analysis, 95% Group - Phonics Library & Multisyllabic Routine

    Vocabulary
    Definition - all the words known and used by a particular person

    • Reading vocabulary - words students are familiar with when reading and know the words meaning when reading
    • Listening vocabulary - words students are familiar with when listening and know the words meaning when listening
    • Speaking vocabulary - words students are familiar with when speaking and know the words meanings when speaking
    • Writing vocabulary - words students are familiar with when writing and know the words meanings when writing
    Did you know 5 & 6 years olds have a working vocabulary of 2,500 - 5,000 words?  Kids learn approximately 3,000 words per year.

    Exposure to words is important but students must also use the words!!

    Programs used to support instruction - Houghton Mifflin, Guided Reading, Skills Groups, 95% Group


    Fluency
    Definition - ability to read a text accurately and quickly

    • Repeated reading
    • Choral Reading
    • Echo Reading
    Fluency is important because it helps support comprehension or understanding what is being read.

    Fluent readers read chunks or groups of words rather than reading word by word.

    Programs used to support instruction -Six Minute Solutions, Read Naturally, Leveled Literature for repeated readings